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Can you provide reliable Shia/Sunni sources on martyrdom of lady Fatima Al-Zahra (a.s.)?


Can you please provide reliable Shia and Sunni sources on the event that led to martyrdom of Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a.s.)?


The Eminent Sheikh At-Tusi wrote: “One of the denied facts is that they (Umar and his followers) hit Fatima (the blessing of Allah be upon her) although it has been narrated that they flogged her with a strip and a famous opinion that no one amongst the Shia scholars dispute about, is that Umar hit her on her stomach (womb) until she was forced to have a miscarriage, where the miscarried baby was named Mohassan. The narration (of the event) is even famous amongst them (the Sunnis), as well as the narration of their intention to burn her house when a group of sincere companions who had refused to pay allegiance and sought refuge to her house. And no one can deny this narration because we have proven it from amongst the Sunni sources through the narration of Al-Balathari and others, and the Shia narrations are numerous and our scholars indisputably accept them.”
(Talkhis Al-Shafi 3:156)

The following are some of the related narrations from the Shia and Sunni sources:

A. Sunni narrations

1) The purity of Fatima Zahra in the words of the Prophet:

a. Allah, The Exalted says: And those whom inflict harm on the Messenger of Allah will receive a chastising punishment. (Surat At-Tawba, verse 61).

The Messenger of Allah said: Fatima is part of me, whosoever angers her angers me! (Fat-h Al-Bari fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari 7:84, Sahih al-Bukhari – in the chapter ‘alamat an-nubuwwa 6:491, the last part of Kitabil Maghazi 8:110)

b. O Fatima! Verily Allah is angered by your anger and is pleased when you are pleased. (Mustadrak Al-Hakim 3:154, Majma’ Al-zawa-id 9:203)

c. O Fatima! Are you not pleased to be the leader of the ladies of the worlds, and the leader of the ladies of these people (ummah) and the leader of all believing ladies. (Mustadrak Al-Hakim 3:156)

2) The sacredness of Fatima’s house

a. The Messenger of Allah recited the following verse: “In houses which Allah has ordered to be raised, in them His Name is remembered”. A man approached him and asked him, “Which houses are they O Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “The houses of the Prophets”. So Abu Bakr asked him while pointing to the house of Ali and Fatima: “Is this house included amongst those houses?” The Messenger of Allah replied: “Yes, it is the best amongst them!” (Ad-Dur Al-manthur 6:203, Ruhul Ma’ani 18:174)

b. The Messenger of Allah used to recite the following verse at the door of Fatima’s house for six months, and according to other narrations nine months: “Verily Allah chooses to keep impurity distant from you Household (of the Prophet) and purify you a thorough purification.” (Ad-Dur Al-manthur 6:606)

3) The sacredness of Fatima’s house after the demise of her father

a. Abu Bakr bin Abi Shayba (born in 159 A.H., died 235 A.H.), the author of the book, Al-Musannaf, has narrated in a reliable narration: After the Prophet died and people pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr, Ali and Zubayr used to approach Fatima, and consult her regarding their affairs.

When this news reached Umar bin al-Khattab, he went to approachFatimaand said to her: “O daughter of the Messenger of Allah, I swear by Allah that there is no one more beloved to us than your father and there is no one more beloved to us after your father than you. And by Allah, that will not prevent me from ordering your house to be burnt on them if they gather with you (at your house)”.

Abu Bakr bin Shayba said: When Umar left, they (Ali and Zubayr) returned to her. She said to them “Umar had just come to me and said that if you were to return here, he will burn the house on you, and I swear by Allah that he will do exactly what he has said.” (Al-Musannaf – Kitabul Maghazi 8:572)

b. An-Nassabi, commonly known as Ahmad bin Yahya Jabir Al-Baghdadi Al-Balathari (who passed away in the year 270 A.H), the author of Ansabul Ashraaf, narrates: Abu Bakr sent for Ali to pledge allegiance to him (Abu Bakr), but he (Ali) refused. So Umar came (to his house) with a fire-lamp. Fatimaencountered him at the door (of the house) and said: “O Ibn Al-Khattab, are you going to burn the door on ME?” He said “Yes! And this (burning the house) makes what your father had come with stronger…” (Ansaabul Ashraaf 1:586)

c. The famous historian Abdullah bin Muslim bin Qutayba Dinwari (who died in the year 276 A.H) has narrated: Abu Bakr realised that a group of people who were with Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) did not pledge allegiance to him (Abu Bakr). So he (Abu Bakr) sent Umar to them who called for them while they were in Ali’s house, but they refused to come out (to pledge allegiance). So Umar ordered his men to get wood and said: I swear by the One whom Umar’s soul is in His power, you have to get out (of the house) or I will burn it down on whosoever is inside it!” Someone said to him: “O Aba-Hafs, but Fatima is inside!” Umar replied: “So what!!” And he walked with a group of his men until he reached the door ofFatima’s house and knocked on it. When she heard their voices she cried loudly: “O father! O Messenger of Allah! What is being inflicted upon us after your death from ibn Al-Khattab and ibn Abi-Qohafah?!”

When the people (who were with Umar) heard the voice and the cry of Fatima, some of them left. Umar with a few members of the group remained, forced Ali out of the house, took him to Abu Bakr and told him “Pledge your allegiance!” He (Ali) replied, “And if I don’t then what?” They replied, “By Allah whom there is no other God but Him, we will cut off your head!” (Al-Imamah was-siyasah 13&12)

e. Ahmad, who is known as Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih Al-Undulosi, who is the author of the book Al-‘Iqdul Farid (who passed away in the year 463 A.H) has said: As for Ali, Al-Abbas and Zubayr, they remained in the house of Fatima until Abu Bakr sent Umar to force them out. He (Abu Bakr) instructed Umar: “If they refuse, then fight them!” So he (Umar) approached them with a burning flame to burn the house on them. So Fatima addressed him and said: “O ibn Al-Khattab! Have you come to burn our house?!” He said “Yes! Unless you do what the people have done!” (ie. pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr). (Al-‘Iqdul Farid 4:93)

The attack on her house occurs

f. Abu Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Salaam (who died in the year 224 A.H) has narrated on the authority of Abdul Rahman bin ‘Ouf that Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafa said: I wish that I did not raid the house of Fatima and that I left it even if the door was closed to (plan) war. (Al-Amwaal 144)

h. Ibn Abd-Rabbih Al-Undulosi has narrated in his book, Al-‘Iqdul Farid, from Abdul Rahman bin ‘Ouf that Abi Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa said: And I wish that I did not raid the house of Fatima for any reason even if they had the door closed to (plan) war. (Al-‘Iqdul Farid 4:93)

i. Ibrahim bin Sayyar al-Nazzam; the Mu’tazali (who died in the year 231 A.H) narrated: On the day of pledging allegiance (to Abu Bakr) Umar hit the stomach of Fatima until she miscarried Muhassan. (Al-Wafi bil Wafiyyat 6:17)

j. Muhammad bin Yazid bin Abdil Akbar Al-Baghdadi (who died in the year 285 A.H), the famous author of the book Al-Kamil, narrated from Abdil Rahman bin ‘Ouf from Abi Bakr bin Abi Qohafa: I wish I did not raid Fatima’s house and that I left it even if the door was closed to (plan) war. (Sharh Nahjul Balagha li-ibn Abi Al-Hadid 2:46)

k. Al-Masudi (who died in the year 325 A.H) has narrated in his book titled Muruj Al-thahab: Abu Bakr said at the time of his death: “I wish I did not seek to raid the house of Fatima”, and he mentioned many things about that incident.” (Muruj Al-Thahab 2:301)

l. Ibn Abi Darim (who died in the year 357 A.H) has narrated in his book Mizan Al-I’tidal: Umar kicked Fatima until she miscarried Muhassan. (Mizan Al-I’tidal 3:459)

m. The contemporary historian, Abdul Fattah Abdul Maqsood, stated in his book ‘Imam Ali’: That Umar bin Al-Khattab said “I swear by the One whom Umar’s soul is in His power, they must come out of the house or else I will burn it on whoever is inside it …!”

A group of the people (who were with Umar) who feared Allah and guarded (the teachings of) the Prophet said: “O Aba-Hafs, Fatima is inside!”

He carelessly screamed: “So what … !” He then approached and knocked on the door, then he hit the door open and invaded it … and Ali appeared to him … at that moment Fatima’s voice was heard from the doorway of the house … she was crying for help … (Abdul Fattah Abdul Maqsood: Ali bin Abi Taleb 4:276)

n. Moqatil ibn ‘Atiyyah narrated in his book ‘Al-Imamah wal Khilafah’: After Abu Bakr took the allegiance of people by force, using his sword and power, he sent Umar and Qunfuth and a group of men to the house of Ali and Fatima. Umar collected wood and put them at the doorway of Fatima’s house and burnt the door down … (Al-Imamah wal khilafah 160-161)


As for the Shia narrations, it suffices to mention a few of them.

1) Ibn Qawlawayh narrated in his book ‘Kamilul Ziyarat’ in a reliable hadith from Hammad Bin ‘Uthman from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s.): On the night of the Prophet’s ascension, it was said to him (the Prophet): “Allah will test you in three things” and he started counting them… then he said “as for your daughter, she will be oppressed and deprived (of her right) and her right (to Fadak) that you will give to her will be seized from her and she will be hit while she is pregnant, and her house (and privacy of her family) will be entered without permission, then weakness and humiliation will be inflicted upon her and she will not be able to prevent it, and she will miscarry her baby from all the hits she will suffer, and she will die as a result of those hits … and the murder of Muhassan bin Ali will be the first crime that the killer (Umar) will be accountable, and then Qunfuth, so they will both attend (the judgement).” (Kamilul Ziyarat 232)

2) Yunus bin Ya’qub has narrated from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s.) that the Imam said: O Yunus! My grandfather the Messenger of Allah said “Cursed is the one who will oppress my daughter Fatima after I die, and seize her right and kill her!” (Kanzul Fawa-id 1:149)

3) Al-Kulayni has narrated from Abi Basir from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s.) who said: Amir Al-mumineen (i.e. Imam Ali) said: “Your miscarried babies whom you do not name before they die, will meet you on the Day of Judgement, and the baby will ask it’s father “Did you not give me a name?” Verily the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) named Muhassan before he was to be born.” (Al-Kafi 6:18)

4) Muhammad bin Harun Al-Talakbari has narrated in a reliable narration from Abi Basir from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s.) who said: Fatima was born on the twentieth day of Jamadil-akhira, forty-five years after the birth of the Prophet. And the cause of her death was that Qunfuth, the slave of the man (i.e. Abu Bakr), by the command of his master (Abu Bakr), hit her with his sword, from which she miscarried Muhassan, and she became severely ill from this event. And she did not allow anyone of those whom harmed her to enter her house. There were two of the companions of the Prophet (i.e. Umar and Abu Bakr) who asked Amir Al-mumineen (Imam Ali) to intercede on their behalf (and ask Fatima to allow them to enter). He (Imam Ali) asked her and she permitted (for them to enter). When they entered, they remarked “How are you O daughter of the Messenger of Allah?” She replied “I am well, praise to Allah”. Then she told them both, “Have you not heard the Prophet say “Fatima is a part of me, whosoever hurts her has in fact hurt me, and whoever hurts me has in fact hurt Allah”?” They both affirmed that. She said “I swear by Allah that you have both hurt me.” So they both left the house and she was displeased with them. (Dala-il Al-Imamah 45)

5) Sayyed Bin Tawoos has narrated in his book Al-Turaf on the authority of Imam Al-Kathim (a.s.) who said: When the Messenger of Allah was in the last stages of his life, he summoned people of the Ansar and told them “Verily Fatima’s door is my door and her house is my house, whosoever violates it has in fact violated the sanctity of Allah.” The Imam cried for a while and could not continue his words, then he said: “I swear by Allah, the sanctity of Allah has been violated! I swear by Allah, the sanctity of Allah has been violated! I swear by Allah, the sanctity of Allah has been violated! O my mother, blessings of Allah upon her!” (Bihar Al-Anwar 22:476).

Allah’s peace and blessings be upon Lady Fatima, the day she was born, the day she passed away, and the day she will be resurrected.

Answered by: Sheikh Mansour Leghaei

Did Fatima Al-Zahra Threaten to Take off her Hijab?

Question: Did Fatima al-Zahra threaten to take off her Hijab after the attack on her house?!


What is narrated from Imam Sadiq (a.s)-without any authentication as the chain of its narrators is not mentioned- is that Lady Fatima (s.a) said:

“Surely if you do not leave him (Ali) alone, I will certainly dishevel my hair and for sure put the shirt of the Messenger of Allah on my head and will certainly cry to the Almighty Allah (in curse them)”

“Disheveling” the hair (opposite of platting it) in Arabic is a metaphor for the one who is in a great catastrophe and pleads to God. Nowhere in the text it says about her taking off her Hijab, especially the fact that at least Salman (r.a) was very close to her, as mentioned in the story. In fact, it clearly states that part of her threats was ‘to put the shirt of the Prophet (P) on her head’ while this is also a sign of her very close relation to the Messenger of Allah (P), it clearly indicates that she never threatened to take off her Hijab.

Even an ordinary pious woman would never threatens to commit a mortal sin (of taking off her Hijab before non-Mahram) when fighting for justice! Fatima al-Zahra is the one who did not remove her Hijab even before a blind person.

In general, I disagree with sharing such unauthenticated stories especially without a proper explanation. It can be well misunderstood by the general public and could even give a wrong image to our young girls that as if when you want to get out of a trouble you can threaten to take off your Hijab!

Answered by: Sheikh Mansour Leghaei



Regarding the hijab (Muslim woman’s headscarf), some people argue that it’s not Islamic, but rather a Jewish thing, and that it is not actually specified in the Quran that a female must cover her hair.

In addition, they say that the ‘Khimar’ was a cape used back in the old days, rather than it actually referring to something that ‘covers’.

Can you please address these points?


The argument is very simple:

When they say ‘there is no obligation’ do they mean:

1. It is recommended, or

2. It does not exist in Islam at all

Either way what is their proof?

We say its obligatory for the following reasons:

1) “And they shall draw their head scarves all over their necks and chests..” (Holy Quran: Surat Noor, Ayah 31) is an imperative verb and hence it means that it is obligatory.

Khimar literally means whatever that covers the head; scarf. For example, wine is called ‘Khamr’ in Arabic as it covers and conceals the intellect of a drunk person, due to its effect on the person’s brain.

2) “And they shall not show off their beauty…” (Holy Quran: Surat Noor, Ayah 31) is also a strong command.

3. The fact that all practicing Muslim women throughout history have been practicing the act of covering the head – irrespective of their Islamic denomination- confirms that the issue is one of the necessities of Islamic practical laws.

4. A law that is so directly related to the modesty of the society cannot be optional unless the law-makers wish to suggest that maintaining social modesty is optional. If so, they should not oppose their wives, daughters, and sisters if they do not wish to be modest and chaste. Well, it is optional, not obligatory!

5. In expressing Islamic views we must be fearing God to Whom alone we return, not our immediate personal worldly interests.

For more info. on the Hijab please see here

Answered by: Sheikh Mansour Leghaei



In the age of computer gaming, smart phones, endless numbers of Apps, and Whatsapp – in other words, a world in which there has been an explosion in the amount of information we are exposed to everyday – many of us find it hard to manage our time the way we probably should be Islamically. So what does Islam say about time-wasting and making full use of one’s time?

This question is especially relevant for say, the youth who spend several hours straight every day playing computer games, or any other thing which is of no real benefit – neither for their worldly life, and more importantly, for their afterlife. So in addition to the first question, what can we say to such youths in particular in order to motivate them to make better use of their time before their youth is over?


Whether they play on Xbox or online, video game players enter fictional worlds filled with witches, elves, dragons, or war games which promote killing, hatred with a passion, racism and not to mention vulgar language, etc. Like any other industry, video game designers aim to make profit, which means they want you to play more. Thus, whether you play as a single player or online with multiplayers, your games are designed to get you addicted, because you have to either complete the mission or aim for a higher score, and hence these games will have no ending. That is why most gamers are obsessed with video games and spend far too much time playing. A teenager was referred to me by his mother for spending 17 hours every day on video gaming! I think we are soon heading towards rehab hospitals for virtual game addicts!


To treat Internet and game addiction like any other behavioural disorder, it is essential to be educated about their negative effects and then implementing a bit of will power to make a change.

Most of us are unaware of the personal and familial repercussions from computer games and social media until we are addicted and have lost our health and family.

If you feel restless or irritated when you are unable to play or attend your social media, if you are lying to friends and family members regarding the amount of time you spend playing or messaging, and if you are depressed and enjoy isolating yourself from others in order to spend more time gaming, lo and behold! You are already addicted and your health and family are at stake!

Due to the lack of education as to how and when we may use the Internet, cyber family and friends are replacing real family and friendship. Many people build relations with strangers at the cost of losing their near of kin. Imagine a man who is leaning on his couch in the dining room texting his virtual friends. He often laughs or wonders. His wife on the other side of the room tries to speak to him but he is too indulged in his virtual conversation! It is irritating, isn’t it?! As a result, her initial love turns into disliking her husband. As much as love is associated with trust, hatred begets suspicion and thus their family turmoil begins. Alternatively, this becomes a norm and the wife begins her own virtual world of family and friends.

Suggested Treatments

1. Your capital is melting!

Time is the fourth required passage of existence to specify an event. The other three being spatial coordinates. Every one of us enjoys only a limited and finite units of time and hence we are all mortal beings. It is such a precious asset that the Almighty Allah takes an oath by it: “By the time.”! (The Holy Qu’ran, Surah 103)

Time is the only worldly capital that is invisible yet irreplaceable. It is the only capital from which all worldly and hereafterly capitals stem. Time is our main capital to buy our eternal abode and infinite prosperity in the hereafter. It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (a.s): “When we wake up to every new day (or enter a night), it will be said to us: “O son of Adam! I am a new day, and I witness you, so say and do good in me to testify for you on the Resurrection Day. Surely, you shall never see me again”. (al-Kaafi vol. 2 p. 523)

How strange that when a few dollars are stolen from us we cry and complain, yet we generously hand over our life capital for video games and Internet surfing?! How strange that we grieve over the loss of a few dollars in a deal but so generously give out hours of our life?! Isn’t this strange that we don’t even treat our ‘time’ as money?! Abu-dhar asked the holy Prophet (P) about ‘time wasting’. Allah’s Messenger said: “O Abu-dhar! Be stingier on your ‘time’ than your dollars and cents.”

Sheykh Mohammad Z. Razi (died in 925AD) was an Iranian chemist and philosopher. He has written a book in ethical psychology called ‘Spiritual medicine’. In the preface of his book he says: “This book is not useful for those who do not value themselves and their life!”
Unfortunately, most of us do not value the time in our life until we lose it all. Thus, it is narrated that most of the cries of the people of Hell is ‘their regret for delaying’. Thus, one of the names of the Resurrection Day is a ‘Day of Regret’!

When I was a student I used to read short Arabic stories to improve my Arabic. The following is one of the stories I will never forget:
On a hot burning day, a man was selling blocks of ice. He was calling out: “O people! Have mercy on me whose capital is melting!” Perhaps that is why the Almighty Allah states: “By the time! Certainly man is in a manifest loss.” (Surah 103). We really do not value the time in our life.

2. Islam is the religion of time management

Islam theoretically and practically has been disciplining its adherents to manage their time. The Daily Prayer is the most significant worshipping act in Islam, yet God has allocated a fixed and limited time for it. Muslims are not expected to spend all hours of their days for praying. Fasting is another important worshipping act, yet, God has designated a special month and fixed hours to its observance. Likewise, Hajj is an obligatory pilgrimage only for limited days.

The Imams of Ahlulbayt (a.s) advised their followers to manage their time wisely. Imam Sadiq (a.s) said: “Surely an intelligent person divides his days to gain a provision for his hereafter and to make living and the third is seeking some permissible pleasure.” (al-Mahasan, 2:345)

Once an old man made an appointment to seek some knowledge from Imam Sadiq (a.s). As soon as the Imam answered his questions, the holy Imam let the person go and excused himself by saying “I am very stingy for my time, so you may leave please.”

3. Manage your time

On the Day of Judgment we will all be asked about ‘how we spent the days of our lives? It is only wise to mark yourself before being marked. Before you shut down your day, check your mobile and tablet and find out how many hours you have spent today for games and social media? Then sincerely ask yourself what did you gain in return? Did you really need to know all that you were told today?! There are many project management software you can use to manage the hours of your days. Use one of them, and next time when you want to start a game or an Internet chat, click on ‘billable meeting’! Remember even ‘Salaat’ has a fixed and limited time! Repeat to yourself several times a day ‘it is ok to turn my mobile off’. You don’t have to be available at all times.

4. Find a replacement

One of the behavioural syndromes of the ‘only child’ where both parents work is to naturally resort to games and social media. Some psychologists refer to being an only child as a ‘disease in itself’. A child who has no siblings to play with nor receives enough parental attention will naturally look for alternatives. Even at a family get together a lot of their time is spent in silence in front of a television or computer screen! Honestly, we parents are the first to be blamed. We all like to take a break from work, school, even family and children, but when was the last time you took a break from your mobile phone?!

A couple came to my office yesterday for counselling. The man was complaining that he cannot tolerate his rival! “My wife spends far more intimate time with him than me,” cried the man! I thought she was having an affair, but then I realized his rival was her mobile phone! She sleeps with it, wakes up with it, goes shopping with it, and even goes to the bathroom with it!!! Parents and couples need to take a ‘social media vacation’ and spend more time together in real activities. Social media are more of intervening agencies, causing more separation between those who live under one ceiling, yet connecting those living physically far from each other! Most people use games and social media to fill up their free time. Time management and implementing real activities for leisure kicks futile games out of your life.

5. Watch your spiritual food

The Almighty Allah states: “Then let man look at his food.” (Surah 80, Ayah 24). Any information sent to us is a kind of food we take. As many of us watch our food diet, we also need a media diet, Internet diet, and gaming diet! Make sure you are very selective of your online games and chats. Don’t let ‘others’ decide what you play and what you read. Let your intelligence and religious conscience scan them first.

6. Observe piety of media

Today you no longer need to pop into your news agency to see a porno magazine or walk in Oxford Street to see nudity. No need to go to your local RSL Club for gambling. They are all available at your fingertips and in the privacy of your smart phone! Today’s technology is yet another divine challenge to filter true Muslims from hypocrites whose Islamic speech and appearance impresses you but in their so-called privacy they are the worst creatures of God because they lack the piety of media! Before you press a button or touch your mouse remember what God says to you: “Knows he not that Allah does see (what he does).”(Surah 96, Ayah 14)

Remember we are mortal beings and usually no notice of vacancy will be given. Death suddenly falls upon us. What will happen if you die whilst playing a haram game or engaged in a haram chat?!

Answered by: Sheikh Mansour Leghaei